The Crucible is a American historical drama film written by Arthur Miller adapting his play of the same titleinspired by the Salem witchcraft trials. Much of the filming took place on Hog Island in Ipswich, Massachusetts.

The performances of Day-Lewis, Scofield, and Ryder were also the subjects of critical praise.

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Early one morning in SalemMassachusetts insome young village girls meet in the woods with a Barbadian slave named Tituba. One of the girls, Abigail Williamskills a chicken and drinks the blood, wishing for John Proctor 's wife to die.

They are discovered by Abigail's uncle, Reverend Samuel Parris. As the girls run away, Parris' daughter Betty falls over unconscious. Parris questions Abigail about the events that took place in the woods; Betty will not awaken, nor will Ruththe daughter of Thomas and Ann Putnam, who was also dancing. This strikes Mrs. Putnam hard as she had seven other children before Ruth who died at childbirth.

The Parris household is also visited by Giles Coreywho suspects that the children are just acting out, and John Proctor, with whom Abigail had an affair and whose wife she wants dead. Abigail still loves Proctor, but Proctor has realized his mistake and left her. To save herself and the other girls from punishment, Abigail claims that Tituba was working with the devil. After being whipped, Tituba confesses to being a witchand is saved from being hanged. Struck by their new power, the other girls begin naming other women whom they "saw" with the devil, including Elizabeth ProctorJohn Proctor's wife.

John, determined not to give his former lover her vengeance, insists that his servant, Mary Warren, one of the "afflicted" girls, testify in court that the witchcraft was faked. Although Mary Warren is frightened of Abigail, she eventually agrees. In the court, Francis Nurse gives a list of names of people who vouch for the accused; in response, the judges order that all on the list be arrested and brought in for questioning.

Putnam was heard to tell his daughter that she had won him a "fine gift of land". Corey refuses to name the person who heard this remark, and the judges order Corey's arrest. Meanwhile, Mary Warren insists she only thought she saw spirits but is later cowed by the other girls into recanting her recantation. Elizabeth Proctor says she is pregnant and will be spared from death until the baby is born, but he insists on charging the girls with false witness.

The other girls are called in and asked if they were lying about the witchcraft but cause a commotion, screaming that Mary Warren is putting a spell on them.

To demonstrate that Abigail is not innocent, John confesses to having had an affair with her. He claims that Abigail accused Elizabeth in order to get rid of her so that she could marry him.

Abigail denies the accusation to protect her reputation, so Elizabeth is called in to see if the accusation is true. However, not knowing that John confessed and wanting to save his reputation, she lies.

As Reverend Hale tries to persuade the court that John is being honest, the girls turn the court further against the Proctors by screaming that Mary Warren is attacking them in the form of a yellow bird. Although John correctly believes that they were pretending, as he had previously accused, the girls create another commotion, running outside from the bird into a nearby lake, making the court think that they are honest. To save herself from being hanged as a witch, Mary Warren accuses John of witchcraft.

When asked if he will return to God, John despairingly yells "I say God is dead!The infamous Salem witch trials began during the spring ofafter a group of young girls in Salem Village, Massachusetts, claimed to be possessed by the devil and accused several local women of witchcraft. As a wave of hysteria spread throughout colonial Massachusetts, a special court convened in Salem to hear the cases; the first convicted witch, Bridget Bishop, was hanged that June.

By Septemberthe hysteria had begun to abate and public opinion turned against the trials. Though the Massachusetts General Court later annulled guilty verdicts against accused witches and granted indemnities to their families, bitterness lingered in the community, and the painful legacy of the Salem witch trials would endure for centuries. In addition, the harsh realities of life in the rural Puritan community of Salem Village present-day Danvers, Massachusetts at the time included the after-effects of a British war with France in the American colonies ina recent smallpox epidemic, fears of attacks from neighboring Native American tribes and a longstanding rivalry with the more affluent community of Salem Town present-day Salem.

In January9-year-old Elizabeth Betty Parris and year-old Abigail Williams the daughter and niece of Samuel Parris, minister of Salem Village began having fits, including violent contortions and uncontrollable outbursts of screaming. After a local doctor, William Griggs, diagnosed bewitchment, other young girls in the community began to exhibit similar symptoms, including Ann Putnam Jr.

The three accused witches were brought before the magistrates Jonathan Corwin and John Hathorne and questioned, even as their accusers appeared in the courtroom in a grand display of spasms, contortions, screaming and writhing. Though Good and Osborn denied their guilt, Tituba confessed. Likely seeking to save herself from certain conviction by acting as an informer, she claimed there were other witches acting alongside her in service of the devil against the Puritans.

As hysteria spread through the community and beyond into the rest of Massachusetts, a number of others were accused, including Martha Corey and Rebecca Nurse—both regarded as upstanding members of church and community—and the four-year-old daughter of Sarah Good.

In Maythe newly appointed governor of Massachusetts, William Phips, ordered the establishment of a special Court of Oyer to hear and Terminer to decide on witchcraft cases for Suffolk, Essex and Middlesex counties. Presided over by judges including Hathorne, Samuel Sewall and William Stoughton, the court handed down its first conviction, against Bridget Bishop, on June 2; she was hanged eight days later on what would become known as Gallows Hill in Salem Town.

Five more people were hanged that July; five in August and eight more in September.

how accurate is the crucible to the salem witch trials

Though the respected minister Cotton Mather had warned of the dubious value of spectral evidence or testimony about dreams and visionshis concerns went largely unheeded during the Salem witch trials. Trials continued with dwindling intensity until earlyand by that May Phips had pardoned and released all those in prison on witchcraft charges.

The REAL Cause of the Salem Witch Trials - Cool History

In Januarythe Massachusetts General Court declared a day of fasting for the tragedy of the Salem witch trials; the court later deemed the trials unlawful, and the leading justice Samuel Sewall publicly apologized for his role in the process.

The damage to the community lingered, however, even after Massachusetts Colony passed legislation restoring the good names of the condemned and providing financial restitution to their heirs in But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. In earlyduring the depths of winter in Massachusetts Bay Colony, a group of young girls in the village of Salem began acting strangely.

The daughter and niece of the local minister, Samuel Parris, claimed to be afflicted by invisible forces who bit and pinched them, In late MarchJohn and Bethia Kelly grieved over the body of their 8-year-old daughter inside their Hartford, Connecticut, home.

Little Elizabeth had been fine just days before when she returned home with a neighbor, Goodwife Ayres. The distraught parents, grasping at any A doctor diagnosed the children as being victims of black magic, and over the next several months, Witches were perceived as evil beings by early Christians in Europe, inspiring the iconic Halloween figure.

Images of witches have appeared in various forms throughout history—from evil, wart-nosed women huddling over a cauldron of boiling liquid to hag-faced, cackling beings John Proctor sat in the courtroom, watching his pregnant wife, Elizabeth on the stand. Watching his wife withstand the heated examination was bad enough, but suddenly the I cannot see. The trials claimed at least victims the actual toll may be higherwithEven though Miller added some characters to the play and included an unreal love affair, his work, beyond no reasonable doubt depicts the hysteria that existed during the historical episode.

A summary of the more important inaccuracies is discussed below. Arthur Miller provides that, there existed a strong love relationship between characters Abigail Williams and John proctor.

This is a great discrepancy, since; there was no love affair between the two as revealed by Susan Cocalis, professor at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Susan argues that the two hardly come in contact at all. Act two, scene 1. Arthur Miller represents John proctor as a farmer aged 35 years old and Abigail as a lust-crazed teenager aged 17 years old.

But in reality, john Procter was the actual owner of a tavern on the outskirts of town and he was 60 years old. Abigail was only eleven years old. It is quite unlikely that an eleven years aged girl could chase after a 60 years old man.

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The two engage in a sexual affair could be a kind of molestation and not an affair. The historical truth from Salem witch trials is that Elizabeth aged 41 years old the third wife of proctor and Abigail hardly knew one another.

Four years after the witchcraft trials, on July 14,is when Elizabeth Parris died at the age of Abigail William is referred to as Rev. But in reality, there is no genealogical evidence to prove their family relationships. However, in the historical Salem village, Parris had a wife and two more children other than Betty, Thomas and Susannah. The fact that he had lost 31 pounds to Abigail does not exist. In reality, he could not have lost such an amount to Abigail, when, 31 pounds was half of his salary yearly.

It could mean that he had saved all his money and yet he dad people who depended on him for support. In the play, there are only three judges presiding over the trial but in reality, there were nine judges See Records of the Salem Witch-HuntNo.

Despite the discrepancies that are revealed in the crucible with the reality in Salem village, the two share some similarities. In the play and the actual trials, the slave of Samuel Parris, Tituba is the one who is first accused and admitted to practicing witchcraft to save her life.The Crucible is a play by American playwright Arthur Miller.

It is a dramatized and partially fictionalized story of the Salem witch trials that took place in the Massachusetts Bay Colony during — Miller wrote the play as an allegory for McCarthyismwhen the United States government persecuted people accused of being communists. MarshallBeatrice Straight and Madeleine Sherwood. Miller felt that this production was too stylized and cold and the reviews for it were largely hostile although The New York Times noted "a powerful play [in a] driving performance".

The opening narration explains the context of Salem and the Puritan colonists of Massachusettswhich the narrator depicts as an isolated theocratic society in constant conflict with Native Americans. The narrator speculates that the lack of civil liberties, isolation from civilization, and lack of stability in the colony caused latent internal tensions which would contribute to the events depicted in the play. His ten-year-old daughter, Betty Parrislies motionless.

The previous evening, Reverend Parris discovered Betty, some other girls, and his Barbadian slaveTitubadancing naked in the forest and engaged in some sort of pagan ritual. The village is rife with rumors of witchcraft and a crowd gathers outside Rev. Parris' house. Parris becomes concerned that the event will cause him to be removed from his position as the town's preacher.

He questions the girls' apparent ringleader, his niece Abigail Williamswhom Parris has been forced to adopt after her parents were brutally killed in King Philip's War. Abigail denies they were engaged in witchcraft, claiming that they had been dancing.

Afterwards, the wealthy and influential Thomas Putnam and his wife, Ann arrive. At the Putnams' urging, Parris reluctantly reveals that he has invited Reverend John Halean expert in witchcraft and demonology, to investigate and leaves to address the crowd. The other girls involved in the incident join Abigail and a briefly roused Betty, who attempts to jump out of the window. Abigail coerces and threatens the others to "stick to their story" of merely dancing in the woods.

The other girls are frightened of the truth being revealed in actuality, they tried to conjure a curse against Elizabeth Proctor and being labelled witches, so they go along with Abigail. Betty then faints back into unconsciousness. John Proctora local farmer and husband of Elizabeth, enters. He sends the other girls out including Mary Warrenhis family's maid and confronts Abigail, who tells him that she and the girls were not performing witchcraft.

It is revealed that Abigail once worked as a servant for the Proctors, and that she and John had an affair, for which she was fired. Abigail still harbors feelings for John and believes they are reciprocated, but John denies this.

Abigail angrily mocks John for denying his true feelings for her. As they argue, psalm is sung in the room downstairs, Betty bolts upright and begins screaming. Parris runs back into the bedroom and various villagers arrive: the wealthy and influential Thomas and his wife, Ann Putnamrespected local woman Rebecca Nurseand the Putnam's neighbor, farmer Giles Corey.

The villagers, who had not heard the argument, assume that the singing of a psalm by the villagers in a room below had caused Betty's screaming. Tensions between them soon emerge. Putnam is a bereaved parent seven times over; she blames witchcraft for her losses and Betty's ailment. Rebecca is rational and suggests a doctor be called instead.Arthur Miller develops an allegory in The Crucible by comparing the Salem Witch Trials to McCarthyism by using ringleaders, persecuted couples, and hypocrisy in the government or legal system.

Without a doubt, Joseph McCarthy. More than people were accused of witchcraft during the Salem Witch Trials and authorities were so convinced that twenty of them were even killed for it Blumberg.

Salem Witch Trials

The Red Scare took place during the mids to the mid s; it was a time period when many Americans were terrified of Communism and accused one another of being. The Red Scare began in and took place across the United States. The Red Scare was known as the widespread promotion of anti-communism. The Salem Witch Trials were various court hearings and prosecutions of people in Salem accused of Witchcraft. During a time when the U. The play presents itself as a metaphor for the House of Un-American Activities Committee that was created during the Cold War when communism was spreading, but Miller never actually referenced it in the play.

The Crucible VS. Arthur Miller wrote The Crucible, a play about. Miller attacks the red scare, which was a time of fear of communism growing in America, and proves the how similar the two events were, and how they are important.

The Crucible is a play written by Arthur Miller in Miller also wanted Americans to understand that McCarthyism was giving them false information and causing them to have unfounded fear; he accomplished this by comparing McCarthyism to the Salem Witch Trials.

There are many similarities between the events of the Salem Witch Trials. This was a time of suspicion and accusation of many innocent women and men that led to hysteria and complete turmoil in Salem Village.

The Crucible portrays the Salem Witch Trials in a dramatic sense, but there are many similarities between the movie and the actual events.

how accurate is the crucible to the salem witch trials

We can use these unusual events to compare to our own lives and learn from the mistakes of our past. Arthur Miller is an American playwright who wrote The Crucible in The story is basically about a time of suspicion and accusation of many innocent women and men caused by a group of girls doing witchcraft that led to hysteria and complete turmoil in Salem village, and this exists in the late s.

It was actually written on the heels of World War II, during a time when the United States, especially Senator Joseph McCarthy as one of the most outstanding people at the time, was highly concerned.

Although many of the characters and events in the play were non-fictional, many details were changed by the playwright to add intrigue to the story.

Some of these events included: a small pox outbreak that was happening at the time, the revocation of the Massachusetts Bay Colony charter by Charles II, and the constant fear of Native attacks.

how accurate is the crucible to the salem witch trials

These helped in creating anxiety among the early Puritans that …show more content…. While admitting to his actions, he refused to name any others involved in the communist front activities.

Refusing to answer the questions of the committee, Miller was tried and found guilty on two counts of contempt.I've been working with the materials of the Salem Witch Trials of for so long as an academic historian, it's not surprising when people ask me if I've seen the play or film The Crucibleand what I think of it.

First produced on Broadway on January 22,the play was partly a response to the panic caused by irrational fear of Communism during the Cold War which resulted in the hearings by the House Committee on Unamerican Activities.

This is simply not history. The real story is far more complex, dramatic, and interesting - and well worth exploring. Miller himself had some things to say about the relationship between his play and the actual historical event that are worth considering.

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In the Saturday Review inHenry Hewes quotes Miller as stating, "A playwright has no debt of literalness to history. Right now I couldn't tell you which details were taken from the records verbatim and which were invented. Whether this activity is worthwhile or not really depends on what one wants from the play or movie.

I find that many people come across this unusual episode in American history through Miller's story, and if they want to start learning what "really" happened inthey have a hard time distinguishing historical fact from literary fiction because Miller's play and characters are so vivid, and he used the names of real people who participated in the historical episode for his characters.

This play is not history in the sense in which the word is used by the academic historian. Dramatic purposes have sometimes required many characters to be fused into one; the number of girls involved in the 'crying out' has been reduced; Abigail's age has been raised; while there were several judges of almost equal authority, I have symbolized them all in Hathorne and Danforth.

However, I believe that the reader will discover here the essential nature of one of the strangest and most awful chapters in human history. The fate of each character is exactly that of his historical model, and there is no one in the drama who did not play a similar - and in some cases exactly the same - role in history.

As for the characters of the persons, little is known about most of them except what may be surmised from a few letters, the trial record, certain broadsides written at the time, and references to their conduct in sources of varying reliability. They may therefore be taken as creations of my own, drawn to the best of my ability in conformity with their known behavior, except as indicated in the commentary I have written for this text.

Miller clings to simultaneous claims of creative license and exactitude about the behavior and fate of the real people whose names he used for his characters. This is problematic for anyone who is beginning to take an interest in the historical episode, based on his powerful play.

In Miller's autobiography, Timebends: A Lifeoriginally published inMiller recounts another impression he had during his research:. One day, after several hours of reading at the Historical Society [ In one of them, a shaft of sepulchral light shoots down from a window high up in a vaulted room, falling upon the head of a judge whose face is blanched white, his long white beard hanging to his waist, arms raised in defensive horror as beneath him the covey of afflicted girls screams and claws at invisible tormentors.

Dark and almost indistinguishable figures huddle on the periphery of the picture, but a few men can be made out, bearded like the judge, and shrinking back in pious outrage. Suddenly it became my memory of the dancing men in the synagogue on th Street as I had glimpsed them between my shielding fingers, the same chaos of bodily motion - in this picture, adults fleeing the sight of a supernatural event; in my memory, a happier but no less eerie circumstance - both scenes frighteningly attached to the long reins of God.

I knew instantly what the connection was: the moral intensity of the Jews and the clan's defensiveness against pollution from outside the ranks.

Yes, I understood Salem in that flash; it was suddenly my own inheritance. I might not yet be able to work a play's shape out of this roiling mass of stuff, but it belonged to me now, and I felt I could begin circling around the space where a structure of my own could conceivably rise.

There are no extant drawings by witnesses to the events in My best guess is that what Miller may have seen was a lithograph - popular framed wall art in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries - from a series produced in by George H.A play which was set in Salem, Massachusetts in the yearsthe time of the Salem Witch Trials. Miller, having historical accuracy in his play, got the point across that history had repeated itself, yet the historical accuracy might not have.

In order to accomplish this hefty task, Miller had to portray each of his characters not only with historical accuracy, but also in a way in which the readers could understand and believe them. There is an ongoing debate over whether the written version of The Crucible or the film version.

As a result, Arthur Miller became involved and wrote a play to show his beliefs in response to the accusations and haywire going on. Miller used individual characters and portrayed them as a part of his.

Comparing The Crucible and Salem Witch Trials Essay

It is clear that there is a great accuracy between the novel and the current events of the witches' trials in The novel gives an excellent interpretation of the historical perspective involving the witch trials in colonial America.

In colonial times people would be hanged or even executed for expressing their differences. Not only that but also for the haunting incubus and succubus documentations of those days.

how accurate is the crucible to the salem witch trials

Men and women would be wrongly judged for showing their appearance, personality. Stating that all literature contains inborn patterns that an author can include to incite a specific emotive response, the reader then unconsciously recognizes these reiterating archetypes. The film of The Crucible is a historical drama inspired by the Salem witchcraft trials. The film has won a multitude of cinematic achievements and continuously blows audience members away with the accuracy of the historical events and portrayal of the characters by the actors and actresses.

The profound work of Arthur Miller is also expressed within the written play of The Crucible.

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However, the film did the best job of portraying characters that were both historically accurate and believable. An Age of Mass Hysteria: Salem in and Over people were falsely accused of witchcraft from to in Salem, Massachusetts and 20 of those people were executed.

Their faith plays such an influential role in their life that they use it to explain things that modern science would explain. They believe that the bad things that. History films have often been criticised by academics and journalists as inaccurate depictions of the past.

Yet there is no denying the fact that blockbuster history films are increasingly influential in shaping our understanding of historical people and events thanks to the accessibility of the medium. Producers of these films often take liberties with facts to tell a more dramatic, engaging and entertaining story.

The movie was based on a play written by Arthur Miller which was about the Salem witch trials of The movie was about women who were caught dancing and doing a ritual in the forest.

When caught they lied saying that they were being controlled by the devil. The excerpts of Diary of Samuel Sewall by Samuel Sewall from the collection of Massachusetts Historical Society which was provided by National Archive and the University of Virginia was a leading primary source on the Sewall account of the trial. The excerpts focus on pages - as the initial timeline of the trial. The copyright date for this. Abigail Williams is accused of being a witch when she is found in the middle of the woods dancing with several other woman wishing things to happen to them.

So many people went on trial, if people look at the amount of people that went on trial for the Salem Witch Trials there were over people and twenty of them ended up being said witches. When looking at the sense in the movie is shows the woman in long dresses with aprons wrapped around them, most of them wore a white cap on the top of their heads. This is what people in the time period looked like in real life, so the movie did a great job at keeping the clothing correct.